The use of anesthesia is restricted to surgeries whether minor or major; the kind of operation always determine the type of anesthesia solutions to be used.
There are three types of anesthesia used during a surgical process.
The Local Anesthesia
Local anesthesia is used for small and minor procedures, mostly when the area to be operated on is small.it is the safest form of anesthesia solutions and easy to prepare and administer.
The mode of administration is through an injection around the area to operate. Typically, the patient will experience a little sting that fades within a short period in which the body will go numb. The patient is always awake during the procedure but will not feel any pain.
The regional anesthesia administration is via an injection to the spinal cord in the lower back. It is suitable for operation on the lower part of the body such as legs, area around the groin and is sometimes during a caesarean section.
This type of anesthesia solution will have the patient awake during the procedure, and there is no need for assistive breathing.
This kind of anesthesia is not suitable for major abdominal surgeries and anything above the umbilicus.
General Anesthesia (GA)
Unlike the epidural anesthesia, this type of anesthesia solution is a complete form whereby the patient is asleep during the whole process. It is ideal for all procedures, small or major.
General anesthesia is used for major surgeries mostly but can be used on children’s minor surgeries because of their inability to remain still for a long time.
The administration of general anesthesia begins with an injection, then on reaching the operating room, an intravenous drip is given. The general anesthesia is induced by a sequence of drugs by injection into the vein. The patient is then fitted with a face mask to supply oxygen and some anesthetic gases.
Using the general anesthesia requires close monitoring of vital signs to ensure that the patient is safe during the procedure. When the surgery is done, the tube is usually removed and medication to reverse the process is administered and the patient taken to an observation room for monitoring.
The choice of what anesthesia solution to use depends on the problem at hand. While some surgeries may require a simple local anesthesia, others will need the utilization of general anesthesia. Apart from local anesthesia, both the regional and general anesthesia have some side effects that may include dizziness and slight headaches after the procedure. These side effects though pass after some time hence the patient may need to take it easy for a few hours until the anesthesia is off the system.
Another point to note is that if well administered by experts, general anesthesia is safe. It only requires close monitoring to ensure that the right dose is administered to the patient depending on the nature of the operation